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Manganese



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Chapter 9 : Manganese



Manganese arrow_upward


  • Manganese is used in some enzyme reactions and for the proper development of bones and cartilage.
  • Humans must meet their needs for manganese from their diet.

  • Functions of Manganese arrow_upward


  • Manganese though trace mineral still performs various important functions in our body:
    • Manganese acts as a cofactor for many enzymes that facilitate dozens of different metabolic processes.
    • For example, manganese metalloenzymes assist in urea synthesis, the conversion of pyruvate to a TCA cycle compound, and the prevention of lipid per oxidation by free radicals.
    • It takes part in oxidative phosphorylation and metabolism of fatty acids, cholesterol and mucopolysacchride metabolism.
    • It is involved in reactions catalyzed by diamine oxidase, pyruvate carboxylase and mitochondrial super oxide dismutase.
    • It has a probable role in hemoglobin formation.
    • Manganese is found to reduce the symptoms produced by the arthritis.
    • It decreases glucose level of blood while increases the glycogen storage.

    Sources of Manganese arrow_upward


  • Pineapple
  • Cloves
  • Cinnamon
  • Spinach
  • Turmeric
  • Oregano
  • Black Pepper
  • Mustard greens
  • Collard greens
  • Turnip greens
  • Kale
  • Swiss chard
  • Garlic
  • Strawberries
  • Raspberries
  • Grapes
  • Blackstrap Molasses
  • Maple Syrup

  • Daily Dose of Manganese arrow_upward



    Group

    Age

    Dose/day

    Infants

    0-6 months

    0.003 mg

    7-12 months

    0.6 mg

    Children

    1-3 years

    1.2 mg

    4-8 years

    1.5 mg

    9-13 years

    Boys: 1.9 mg

    14-18 years

    Boys: 2.2 mg

    9-18 years

    Girls: 1.6 mg

    Adults

    Women: 19 years and older

    1.8 mg

    Pregnant women

    2 mg

    Breastfeeding women

    2.6 mg

    Men: 19 years and older

    2.3 mg



    Deficiency Symptoms of Manganese arrow_upward


  • Ataxia:
    • Ataxia, which is a neurological symptom that presents as lack of muscle movement coordination, can be a sign of a manganese deficiency.
  • Hearing Loss:
    • Hearing loss can be a sign of a manganese deficiency.
  • Fainting:
    • Those with a manganese deficiency can experience fainting.
  • Diabetes:
    • Some researchers believe that a manganese deficiency may actually lead to the onset of diabetes.
  • Myasthenia Gravis:
    • Myasthenia Gravis is an auto-immune, neuromuscular disease that causes intense muscle weakness and fatigue.
    • Manganese activates many enzyme systems in the body that are useful in the utilization of vitamins and minerals, including choline.
    • A manganese deficiency then causes choline to not be properly utilized which, in turn, reduces acetylcholine synthesis.
    • This reduction in acetylcholine synthesis leads to myasthenia gravis.
  • Weak Ligaments and Tendons:
    • Weakness in the ligaments and tendons attached to the bones of the body can be signs of a manganese deficiency.
  • Infertility:
    • Low levels of manganese have been linked to infertility in women.

    Excessive Intake and Toxicity Symptoms arrow_upward


  • Moderately high intake of manganese does not normally cause a problem, but excessively high levels pose a risk of toxicity.
  • Manganese overdose can cause impotency and nervous system disorders similar to Parkinson's disease.
  • It can also lead to "manganese madness", characterized by irritability, hallucinations, and violent acts.
  • Excessive levels of manganese tend to deplete copper and iron.
  • Manganese toxicity can also occur in people with chronic liver disease, as the liver is the means by which the body excretes excess manganese.


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