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Chapter 1 : Introduction

Data Structures arrow_upward

  • A data structure is a particular way of storing and organizing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently.
  • Different kinds of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized to specific tasks.
  • Data structures hide physical implementation of computer’s memory.
    • Computer’s memory is organized into cells.
    • Each memory cell has a specified memory address and data.

    Types of Data Structures arrow_upward

  • There are two main types of Data Structure:
    • Linear
    • Non-Linear

    Linear Data Structure arrow_upward

  • In linear data structures, values are arranged in linear fashion.
  • Examples of linear data structures in which values are stored in a sequence are:
    • Array
    • Stack
    • Queue
    • Linked list

    Non-Linear Data Structure arrow_upward

  • Non-linear data structure is opposite to linear data structure.
  • The data values in this structure are not arranged in order.
  • Examples of non-linear data structures are:
    • Tree
    • Graph
    • Table
    • Sets

    Basic Principles of Data Structure arrow_upward

  • Data structures are generally based on the ability of a computer to fetch and store data at any place in its memory, specified by an address.
  • Thus the record and array data structures are based on computing the addresses of data items with arithmetic operations; while the linked data structures are based on storing addresses of data items within the structure itself.
  • The implementation of a data structure usually requires writing a set of procedures that create and manipulate instances of that structure.
  • The efficiency of a data structure cannot be analyzed separately from those operations.
  • This observation motivates the theoretical concept of an abstract data type, a data structure that is defined indirectly by the operations that may be performed on it, and the mathematical properties of those operations (including their space and time cost).

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