Plurals are used to denote two or more of something, although they may also denote fractional, zero or negative amounts.
Topics covered in this snack-sized chapter:
Most words become plural by adding s:
- An example of a plural is the English word cats, which corresponds to the singular cat.
If nouns end with certain letters like, (s, x, z, ch, sh and ss), we make the plural by adding –es.
Singular nouns form the possessive by adding an apostrophe and s.
Plural nouns that end in s add only an apostrophe to form the possessive.
Plural nouns that do not end in s, add the apostrophe and s to form the possessive.
for words ending in s
Words ending in a vowel + o become plural by adding s:
Words ending in a consonant + o become plural by adding es:
Many words that end in f or fe become plural with ves:
Words that end in ff
become plural with just an s.
A compound word
is a word that is composed of two or more separate words that are combined to make a new word.
Add an –s to the main or principal word if the compound is hyphenated.
If there is no hyphenation, we make the last word plural.
In the case of –y, if the noun ends with a –y and is preceded by a vowel, you simply add –s
If the noun ends with –y but is preceded by a consonant, the –y is usually changed to –i and –es is added
With proper names ending with -y, you simply add an –s
When a noun ends with –o that’s preceded with a vowel, make it plural by adding an –s.
Some nouns end with –o and are preceded with a consonant; those are made plural by adding –es.
Things that come in pairs:
Nouns that end in -s
but have no singular (aggregate nouns).
Nouns that are plural but do not end in -s
- Brother-in-law = Brothers-in-law