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Measurement



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Chapter 13 : Measurement

Topics covered in this snack-sized chapter:



Measurement arrow_upward


  • Measurement is the process or the result of determining the ratio of a physical quantity, such as a length, time, temperature etc., to a unit of measurement, such as meter, second or degree Celsius.
  • The science of measurement is called metrology.
  • Measurement is collection of quantitative data.
  • A measurement is made by comparing a quantity with a standard unit.
  • Physics is a mathematical science.
  • The metric system is the system of measurement used by scientists to express mass, length, and volume.
  • In an effort to standardize terms for the measurement of energy, force, work, and power, scientists have developed a common system of terminology called System International (SI) units

  • Scalar and Vector arrow_upward


  • Scalars are quantities that are fully described by a magnitude (or numerical value) alone.
  • Examples of scalar quantities are time, volume, mass, temperature etc.
  • Vectors are quantities that are fully described by both a magnitude and a direction.
  • A vector of dimension n is an ordered collection of n elements, which are called components.
  • Examples of vector quantities are distance, velocity, etc.
  • Quantities like force, acceleration, velocity all needs to specify direction so they are vector quantities.

  • SI units of quantities arrow_upward


  • The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system.
  • It comprises a system of units of measurement devised around seven base units and the convenience of the number ten.

  • SI base units  

  • The International System of Units (SI) defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units are derived.
  • These SI base units and their physical quantities are

  • Base Quantity

    Name

    Symbol

    Length

    meter

    M

    Mass

    kilogram

    Kg

    Time

    second

    S

    Electric Current

    ampere

    A

    Thermodynamic Temperature

    kelvin

    K

    Amount of Substance

    mole

    Mole

    Luminous Intensity

    candela

    Cd



  • SI derived units

  • The International System of Units (SI) specifies a set of seven base units from which all other units of measurement are formed, by products of the powers of base units. These other units are called SI derived units.

  • Derived Quantity

    Name

    Symbol

    Area

    square meter

    m2

    Volume

    cubic meter

    m3

    Speed

    meter per second

    m/s

    Velocity

    meter per second

    m/s

    Acceleration

    meter per second squared

    m/s2

    Wavenumber

    reciprocal meter

    1/M

    Density, Mass Density

    kilogram per cubic meter

    kg/m3

    Specific Volume

    cubic meter per kilogram

    m3 /kg

    Current Density

    ampere per square meter

    A/m2

    Energy

    Joule

    Kg m2 /s2

    Force

    Newton

    Kg m/s2

    Wavenumber

    reciprocal meter

    1/M




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