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Water Planet



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Chapter 7 : Water Planet



The Water Planet arrow_upward


  • Viewed from space, the most striking feature of our planet is the water.
  • In both liquid and frozen form, it covers 75% of the Earth’s surface.
  • It fills the sky with clouds. Water is practically everywhere on Earth, from inside the planet's rocky crust to inside the cells of the human body.
  • 71% of the planet's surface is covered by ocean and it is because of this that the Earth is sometimes called " the water planet".

  • Water Cycle arrow_upward


  • The Water Cycle (also known as the hydrologic cycle) is the journey water takes as it circulates from the land to the sky and back again.
  • The Sun's heat provides energy to evaporate water from the Earth's surface (oceans, lakes, etc.).
  • Plants also lose water to the air (this is called transpiration).
  • The water vapor eventually condenses, forming tiny droplets in clouds.
  • When the clouds meet cool air over land, precipitation (rain, sleet, or snow) is triggered, and water returns to the land (or sea).
  • Some of the underground water is trapped between rocks or clay layers this is called groundwater.
  • But most of the water flows downhill as runoff (above ground or underground), eventually returning to the seas as slightly salty water.
  • Sun rays gives power to this cycle.
  • Sun energy push water to rise in the form of water vapors and then again in the form of rain it falls back to earth.
  • Water drops on land, river or ocean then sun energy once again evaporates the water, thus completing the cycle.

  • Surface Water and Run Off arrow_upward


  • Some rain water soaks through the ground while some evaporates into gases.
  • The rain water which doesn’t go either of these run over the ground and ends up in lakes, storms, and oceans and is called Run off.
  • The amounts of rain and for how long it rains are two factors that affect run off.
  • Light rain for long time may result in soaking of water, while heavy rains over a short period result in run off.
  • Surface runoff is the water flow that occurs when the soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water from rain, melt water, or other sources flows over the land.
  • Infiltration (hydrology) — Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil. Infiltration is governed by two forces, gravity, and capillary
  • Sewer — Sewers transport wastewater from buildings to treatment facilities. Storm sewers (also storm drains) are large pipes that transport storm water
  • Erosion — Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of wind, water or ice, by downward or down-slope movement.

  • Ground Water arrow_upward


  • Water that soaks into the ground and collects in the pores of the soil is called ground water.
  • Scientist estimate that 14% of fresh water of earth exists as ground water.
  • Soil and rocks are permeable because the pore spaces are connected and water can pass through them.
  • Rock and soil that don’t have large connected pores are called impermeable and water can’t pass through them.

  • The Importance of Oceans arrow_upward


  • The oceans are important source of food, energy and minerals for many organisms.
  • The energy source like coal and oil are found beneath the ocean’s surface.
  • 1/3 of salt is taken from oceans salt water.
  • They are also the medium of transport for goods.

  • Origin of Oceans

  • When earth was first formed, its surface was mostly volcano and cooled volcano rocks.
  • When these rocks erupted, lots of water vapors were formed.
  • These water vapors gathered and condensed into oceans.

  • Composition of Ocean water arrow_upward


  • Contain gases like Oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
  • Today’s average is 3.5% of ocean water is salt.
  • The oceans contain many dissolved salts along with elements like calcium, magnesium, and sodium.

  • Ocean Current

  • An Ocean current is a mass movement, or work flow of ocean water.
  • They are like rivers in oceans.

  • Tides  arrow_upward


  • Tides are the rise and fall of sea level.
  • They are created by giant waves that are produced by gravitational pull of the sun.
  • Water level moves out at low tides and rise again at high tide.
  • Oceans react to the pull between the earth and moon.
  • Two bulges of water always form when the moon rotates around the earth.

  • Tides and moon

  • These bulges cause high tides where the moon is closest to the earth,
  • The areas of the earth that the moon is not over at that time experience low tides.

  • Spring Tides

  • When the sun, moon and earth are all lined up it cause more gravitational pull and create the spring tides.
  • It makes higher tides higher and lower tides lower.

  • Neap Tides

  • When the sun, moon and earth are at right angles to each other they cause neap tides.
  • It gives lower high tides and higher low tides.


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