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Chapter 3 : Tables and Charts



Data in Tables and Charts arrow_upward


  • The data or the information organized in the form of tables, charts and graphs are easy to understand.
  • It is often used to understand large amount of data and the relation between different parts of data.

  • Tables arrow_upward


  • Below is the representation of the data showing the number of marbles collected by a group of kids in tabular form.

  • Name

    Marbles Collected

    John

    10

    Eric

    15

    Hannah

    22

    Lisa

    7


  • It is clear from the table that the child who collected most marbles is Hannah and the child who collected least marbles is Lisa.
  •  


    Charts arrow_upward


  • Charts are the way of representing data or information.
  • Charts can usually be read more quickly than the raw data.
  • The type of charts can include:
    • Bar Chart
    • Pie Chart
    • Line Chart

    Bar Chart arrow_upward


  • A Bar Chart is used to show comparison.
  • It is made up of a series of bars either arranged vertically or horizontally.
  • Example: A survey of 145 people revealed their favorite fruit:

  • Fruit

    People

    Apple

    35

    Orange

    30

    Banana

    10

    Kiwifruit

    25

    Blueberry

    40

    Grapes

    5


  • And here is the Bar Chart:
  • For that group of people Blueberries are most popular and grapes are the least popular.

  • Types of Bar Chart arrow_upward



    Vertical Bar Chart:

  • A Chart that visually displays data using vertical bars, going up from the bottom, whose lengths are proportional to quantities they represent.
  • Bar Chart given below represents the total Sales for Atlanta, Paris and Sydney.

  • Horizontal Bar Chart:

  • A Bar Chart in which the length of each bar is proportional to the quantity to be presented and all bars go across from left to right.
  • Below is the Horizontal Bar Chart that shows scores scored by team per season.

  • Pie Chart arrow_upward


  • Circle graphs also known as Pie Charts, are generally used to show what percent of a whole each particular item in a group represents.
  • The graph shown below is called a pie chart:

  • Line Chart arrow_upward


  • Line Charts are typically used to show the change of something over time. 
  • It also represents how two axes of information vary depending on one another.
  • Example: This line charts shows the midday temperature over a period of 7 days.
  • You can see at a glance that the temperature was at the peak on Monday, started to fall in the middle of the week and then rising again at the end of the week.

  • Raw Data arrow_upward


  • Raw data is the information that has not been processed in order to be displayed in any sort of presentable form.
  • Example: 24, 26, 24, 21, 27, 27, 30, 41, 32, 38

  • Frequency arrow_upward


  • The frequency of a particular data value is the number of times the data value occurs.
  • For example, if 4 students have a score of 80 in mathematics, then the score of 80 is said to have a frequency of 4.

  • Frequency Distribution arrow_upward


  • A frequency distribution is a tool for organizing data. We use it to group data into categories and show the number of observations in each category.
  • Example:
  • The marks awarded for an assignment set for a year 8 in the class of 20 students were as follows:
  • 6, 7, 5, 7, 7, 8, 7, 6, 9, 7, 4, 10, 6, 8, 9, 5, 6, 4, 8, 8
  • Present this information in a frequency table.
  • Solution:

    Marks

    Frequency

    4

    2

    5

    2

    6

    4

    7

    5

    8

    4

    9

    2

    10

    1



    Cumulative Frequency arrow_upward


  • The sum of the frequencies at or below a given value.
  • It is the running total of the frequencies up to the given value.
  • Example: The cumulative frequency table represents the volcanic eruptions between 1900 and 2000.

  • Relative Frequency arrow_upward


  • Relative Frequency is given by: Frequency/ Total Cumulative Frequency.
  • Example: Find the Relative Frequency of the data given below:

  • Class

    Frequency

    Cumulative Frequency

    10 but < 20

    3

    3

    20 but < 30

    6

    9

    30 but < 40

    5

    14

    40 but < 50

    4

    18

    50 but < 60

    2

    20

    Total

    20

    20


    Solution:
  • The relative frequency of the data is shown below:

  • Class

    Relative

    Frequency

    %

    10 < 20

    0.15

    15%

    20 < 30

    0.30

    30%

    30 < 40

    0.25

    25%

    40 < 50

    0.20

    20%

    50 < 60

    0.10

    10%

    Total

    1

    100%



    Histogram arrow_upward


  • A histogram is a display of statistical information that uses rectangles to show the frequency of data items in successive numerical intervals of equal size.

  • Class Interval

    Frequency

    0 – 5

    4

    5 – 10

    10

    10 – 15

    18

    15 – 20

    8

    20 – 25

    6


  • Note that there is no gap between the bars.

  • Frequency Polygon arrow_upward


  • It shows relative frequencies of class intervals.
  • The frequency polygon shown above represents the number of vehicles that passes through a particular route in different hours.
  •  


    Ogive arrow_upward


  • A distribution curve in which the frequencies are cumulative.
  • The relative slopes from point to point will indicate greater or lesser increases.

  • Scatter Graph arrow_upward


  • A Scatter Graph plots a type of mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data.
  • The data is displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis.
  • In the Scatter Graph below, sales is plotted against cost for Apples and Bananas.


  • Thank You from Kimavi arrow_upward


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