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Anesthesia Related Techniques

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Chapter 5 : Anesthesia Related Techniques

Anesthesia Related Techniques arrow_upward

  • Anesthesia involves the use of medicines to block pain sensations (analgesia) during surgery and other medical procedures.
  • Anesthesia also reduces many of your body's normal stress reactions to surgery.
  • It can also help to control:
    • Breathing
    • Blood Pressure
    • Blood flow
    • Heart rate and rhythm, when needed
  • An anesthesiologist is a doctor who specializes in giving and managing anesthetics.
  • In addition to administering anesthesia medications before the surgery, the anesthesiologist will:
    • Monitor major bodily functions during surgery
    • Address any problems that might arise during surgery
    • Keep patient as comfortable as possible before, during, and after surgery

    Determination of the Type of Anesthesia arrow_upward

  • The type of anesthesia used which depends on several things:
    • Patient’s past and current health
    • The doctor or nurse will consider other surgeries patient have had and the health problems
    • The reason for surgery and the type of surgery
    • The results of tests, such as blood tests or an electrocardiogram

    Types of Anesthesia arrow_upward

  • There are three main categories of anesthesia, each having many forms and uses:
    • General Anesthesia
    • Regional Anesthesia
    • Local Anesthesia

    General Anesthesia arrow_upward

  • General anesthesia causes a patient to be unconscious during surgery.
  • Extensive surgical procedures usually require general anesthesia.
  • The medicine is either inhaled through a breathing mask or tube, or administered through an intravenous line.
  • The goal is to make and keep a person completely unconscious during the operation, with no awareness or memory of the surgery.
  • General anesthesia improves post-operative outcomes.

  • Regional Anesthesia arrow_upward

  • Regional anesthesia involves injection of a local anesthetic (numbing agent) around major nerves or the spinal cord to block the pain from a larger but still limited part of the body.
  • There are several forms of regional anesthetics:
    • Spinal Anesthetic
    • Epidural Anesthetic
    • Brachial plexus

    Spinal Anesthetic

  • It is often used for lower abdominal, pelvic, rectal, or lower extremity surgery.
  • This type of anesthetic involves injecting a single dose of the anesthetic agent directly into the spinal cord in the lower back, causing numbness in the lower body.

  • Epidural Anesthetic

  • It is similar to a spinal anesthetic and also is commonly used for surgery of the lower limbs and during labor and childbirth.
  • Fig: Anesthesia Injection into Spinal Canal-Epidural

    Brachial Plexus

  • It is a local anesthetic injected in a space containing a bundle of nerves that supply the upper extremity and cause numbness in the whole arm.

  • Local Anesthesia arrow_upward

  • Local anesthesia is a medicine given to temporarily stop the sense of pain in a particular area of the body.
  • A patient remains conscious during a local anesthetic.
  • For minor surgery, a local anesthetic can be administered via injection to the site.
  • Local Anesthetics that are generally used are:
    • Procaine is a drug of amino ester group used to reduce the pain of intramuscular injection of penicillin, and it was also used in dentistry.
    • Benzocaine is the ethyl ester of p-aminobenzoic acid, used as a topical pain reliever or in cough drops.
    • Lidocaine is used to relieve itching, burning and pain from skin inflammations, injected as a dental anesthetic or as a local anesthetic for minor surgery.

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