Chapter 5 : Anesthesia Related Techniques
Anesthesia involves the use of medicines to block pain sensations (analgesia) during surgery and other medical procedures.
Topics covered in this snack-sized chapter:
Anesthesia also reduces many of your body's normal stress reactions to surgery.
It can also help to control:
An anesthesiologist is a doctor who specializes in giving and managing anesthetics.
In addition to administering anesthesia medications before the surgery, the anesthesiologist will:
- Heart rate and rhythm, when needed
- Monitor major bodily functions during surgery
- Address any problems that might arise during surgery
The type of anesthesia used which depends on several things:
- Keep patient as comfortable as possible before, during, and after surgery
- Patient’s past and current health
- The doctor or nurse will consider other surgeries patient have had and the health problems
- The reason for surgery and the type of surgery
There are three main categories of anesthesia, each having many forms and uses:
General anesthesia causes a patient to be unconscious during surgery.
Extensive surgical procedures usually require general anesthesia.
The medicine is either inhaled through a breathing mask or tube, or administered through an intravenous line.
The goal is to make and keep a person completely unconscious during the operation, with no awareness or memory of the surgery.
General anesthesia improves post-operative outcomes.
Regional anesthesia involves injection of a local anesthetic (numbing agent) around major nerves or the spinal cord to block the pain from a larger but still limited part of the body.
There are several forms of regional anesthetics:
- The results of tests, such as blood tests or an electrocardiogram
It is often used for lower abdominal, pelvic, rectal, or lower extremity surgery.
This type of anesthetic involves injecting a single dose of the anesthetic agent directly into the spinal cord in the lower back, causing numbness in the lower body.
It is similar to a spinal anesthetic and also is commonly used for surgery of the lower limbs and during labor and childbirth.
Fig: Anesthesia Injection into Spinal Canal-Epidural
It is a local anesthetic injected in a space containing a bundle of nerves that supply the upper extremity and cause numbness in the whole arm.
Local anesthesia is a medicine given to temporarily stop the sense of pain in a particular area of the body.
A patient remains conscious during a local anesthetic.
For minor surgery, a local anesthetic can be administered via injection to the site.
Local Anesthetics that are generally used are:
- Procaine is a drug of amino ester group used to reduce the pain of intramuscular injection of penicillin, and it was also used in dentistry.
- Benzocaine is the ethyl ester of p-aminobenzoic acid, used as a topical pain reliever or in cough drops.
- Lidocaine is used to relieve itching, burning and pain from skin inflammations, injected as a dental anesthetic or as a local anesthetic for minor surgery.